Asparagus cultivation in the vegetable garden

The cultivation of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis)  has a good reputation as a difficult and demanding crop. At Gardenprue we are going to try to help you get to know and get the most out of asparagus cultivation, knowing the needs of fertilizer, irrigation, climate and other means that we will keep in mind at all times.

 

CLIMATIC NEEDS IN ASPARAGUS CULTIVATION

As we have commented before,   cultivation is complicated , among other things due to the sensitivity of asparagus to changes in temperature. It develops in conditions of 18 and 25 ºC. If it falls below 15-16 ºC, vegetative development is paralyzed.

Asparagus growth

EDAPHOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF ASPARAGUS

The soil has to be properly worked for the incorporation of the crop into the soil. A deep plow is previously carried out, with an important bottom fertilizer and a texture that varies between sandy loam or silty (clay soils are not very advisable). Regarding Ph, the crop requires basic soils , with adequate lime content. Values ​​between 7 and 8 are recommended, 6.5 is admissible. Above 8 Mg and B are blocked.

LIGHT NEEDS 

In the case of green asparagus, the light requirements are high. It is green due to its chlorophyll content, which means that at least 2/3 of the asparagus must receive direct lighting. A variation of the green color defines the quality variation of the product at the time of its commercialization.

ASPARAGUS CULTIVATION THROUGH SEEDS

Another condition of the crop. If you want to have asparagus through seeds you can collect only from the third year.

CROP PLANTING FRAMEWORK

Photo: agrolanzarote

Between 20,000 and 30,000 plants are produced per hectare. That hectare is distributed as follows. Distance between floors of 0.25 and 0.3 and separation between lines of 1 meter.

SUBSCRIBER

Asparagus requires medium amounts of fertilizers or fertilizers, although the time of incorporation is more important than the amount added to the crop.

A background fertilizer, before planting, can be the following:

  • Manure: 30,000-60,000 kg / ha. The average quantity is usually 50,000 kg / ha
  • Nitrogen: 150 kg / ha
  • Phosphorus: 90 kg / ha
  • Potassium: 250 kg / ha
From the 2nd year the following subscriber is made:
  • Manure: 15,000 kg / ha
  • Nitrogen: 150 kg / ha
  • Phosphorus: from 50 to 100 kg / ha
  • Potassium: from 150 to 250 kg / ha
From the third year the following amounts will be added:
  • Nitrogen: 150-200 kg / ha
  • Phosphorus: from 50 to 100 kg / ha
  • Potassium: from 150 to 250 kg / ha

The cover fertilizer will consist of 2-3 nitrogen contributions outside the budding season, from the months of June, July and August, ceasing to pay after the last irrigation.

ASPARAGUS IRRIGATION

There are 3 well-defined types of irrigation in the cultivation of asparagus . The first type is carried out in the plantation, the second during vegetative growth (annual development of the aerial part) and the third during the harvest season. In all 3 the amounts of irrigation vary so caution must be exercised when watering, since excess water leads to root rot and chlorosis in young plants.

The amount of water according to irrigation is as follows:

  • First irrigation (plantation irrigation): only maintain soil moisture (1-2 times a week).
  • Second irrigation (development of the aerial part): 800-1,000 m 3 / ha in total (1-2 weekly irrigations).
  • Third irrigation (prior to harvest): 200-300 m 3 / ha in total at the beginning of the period, and 30-40 m 3 / ha during harvest, on a weekly basis.

MOST USED VARIETIES

VarietyBreederCalibreProductionPrecocityColorHeadUtilization
Huetor PurplePopulationMedium, fineBajaBajaDark greenClosedVerde
Mary WashingtonU. CaliforniaHalfMediaMediaMedium greenLittle closedGreen and white
UC 157 F1U. CaliforniaHalfMediaMediaMedium greenClosedGreen and white
Atlas F1VilmorinMedium-thickHighHighMedium greenVery closedVerde
Great F1R. ArnedoMedium-thickVery highHighMedium greenVery closedVerde
Apollo F1R. ArnedoGreatHighHigh averageMedium greenClosedVerde
Plaverd (H.Doble)PlateHalfHighMediaDark greenVery closedGreen and white
Darbonne-3DarbonneMedium-thickHigh averageMediaMedium greenLittle closedWhite and green
I quote F1 (H. de Clon)PlanasaHalfHighMediaMedium greenLittle closedGreen and white
Jersey Giant F1FitóThickHigh averageHighDark greenClosedVerde
Steline (H. of clone)PlanasaHalfMediaMediaMedium greenClosedGreen and white
Desto F1 (H. of clone)PlateMedium-thickMediaHighMedium greenClosedVerde
Showing from 1 to 12 of 12 records
Source: Ministry of Agriculture of Castilla la Mancha.

ECONOMIC INVESTMENT IN THE IMPLANTATION OF ASPARAGUS CULTIVATION

CROPS TO AVOID PRIOR TO PLANTING ASPARAGUS

Avoid growing alfalfa, potatoes, beets, carrots and clover in seasons prior to growing asparagus.

PROBLEMS AND CAUSES PHYSICALLY DETECTED IN THE ASPARAGUS SHOOT

FLACID TURION: cause attributable to water deficit.

GRANEADO TURION: possible water variations and temperature fluctuations.

FLOWERED TURION: excess temperature or low carbohydrate content.

DESICCATED TURION: boron deficiency.

HOOK SHAPED TURION: possible calcium (Ca) deficiency or a negative Ca / B ratio.

SIGMOID TURION: Possible poor relationship between calcium and phosphorus.

RIBBED TURION: calcium deficiencies and possible negative variations in irrigation.

HOLLOW TURION: lack of calcium and excess of nitrogen in the fertigation plan.

PALETTE TURION: possible phosphorus deficiency or poor genetic selection.

Welcome to The GardenPure! My name is Ryan Heagle, and I’m the founder of The GardenPure, I spent the first part of my adult life teaching and then living in Australia in various business ventures, the first of which was a business devoted to the sale of house plants.  I am now a full time blogger. I am a self taught gardener.

Ryan Heagle

Welcome to The GardenPure! My name is Ryan Heagle, and I’m the founder of The GardenPure, I spent the first part of my adult life teaching and then living in Australia in various business ventures, the first of which was a business devoted to the sale of house plants.  I am now a full time blogger. I am a self taught gardener.

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