SEEDS, THE BEGINNING OF SUCCESS
The origin of plant life begins through a small (or large) element, the seed. We are used to seeing sachets of prepared seeds or we even skip this step and buy vegetable seedlings. However, if we want to gain experience growing, we have to know, as a minimum, the beginning of every crop, the seeds. We are going to see some considerations, sowing schedule, disinfection, etc.
SOIL, THE VITAL GROWTH FACTOR
It is not the first time that we remember that the soil is, without a doubt, the special condition when it comes to cultivating. As you know, there are many factors that interact in the growth of a plant, be it the climate, irrigation, cultivation work, the fauna that inhabits the environment, etc., but none of these is comparable with the way in which that the soil influences the plant material.
It is so important that we have a category dedicated to this element, in which we try to include factors to improve its quality, conditioning factors ( pH, texture, drainage, etc. ) and anything that, in any way, has something to do with the land we cultivate.
You can access this category here.
The soil has to offer all the conditions so that a seed, of whatever type, allows it to develop. If this is very good but it is planted in a low-quality substrate, it is likely that nothing will come of it. On the contrary, if you sow a seed with a reduced germination capacity in very good soil, it is possible that, after all, a plant will be obtained from there and, as one might suppose, a harvest.
WORK TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF A SOIL
Basically there are some tasks that we have to do to offer a floor in full condition:
- That it has a suitable pH .
- That it has adequate drainage.
- That is not a saline soil.
- That it is disinfected and does not harbor underground pests or diseases.
- Have a good level of fertility.
THE GERMINATION CAPACITY OF A PLANT
We can say that the germination capacity is the probability that a seed develops properly, under suitable conditions. That is, good temperature, good humidity, good lighting and good soil quality.
We cannot give empirical data on the appropriate values for each one because it varies in a complex way depending on the species we are trying to propagate. Some seeds need cold to germinate, others that the layer that covers them is removed, etc.
Some seeds have a waterproof coating on the inside. Evolutionarily they have developed it so that the stomach acids of the animals that feed on them scarify it and “sow” it with their stools. Although it sounds bad, the heat of the animal together with the fresh “compost” produced, gives rise to a large plant.
You can know the germination capacity of some of the seeds according to the passing of the years, you can use this link .
HOW TO AVOID PLANTING DISEASED SEEDS
The sanitary state of the seeds will allow the plants to grow properly or not. Those that present physical anomalies or are suspected of having been affected by pests and diseases should be eliminated. Not only because it will have many growth problems (if any), but also because it is a perfect transmission medium, which can cause, from a single seedling, the deterioration of many, once it spreads.
If in doubt, either they are eliminated, or they can undergo any of these treatments:
Copper oxychloride: widely used to slow down and prevent fungal growth on plants. In seeds, it performs the same function.
Manganese dithiocarbamate: it is known as Maneb and is still present in the VADEMECUM of phytosanitary products of 2014. It has fungicidal activity in a wide field of action on endoparasitic fungi. It is not considered very toxic so it is highly recommended.
Metalaxil: a product still tolerated in 2014 that has a fungicidal action and is especially indicated to combat fungi that attack the neck and roots, and the entire mildew group .
However, there is much more on the market. You can consult them in MAGRAMA.
TEMPERATURE APPLICATION: THERMOTHERAPY
It is especially suitable for seeds that are included in organic farming. It is a totally natural procedure that is based on the use of heat, both dry and humid, to disinfect the seed. The disadvantage is that, often, to effectively eliminate all the harmful organisms that the seed may contain, its germination capacity can also be lost .
WHEN TO SOW, A VERY IMPORTANT TASK
The sowing conditions, as we have said, were governed by a series of parameters. Be it the soil, the top, the type of seed, etc. In this case, speaking of the weather, it is vital that it always be sown when the time is right. To do this, you have to resort to a sowing calendar.
|SHE||October January||June July||20 x 20 cm|
|CHARD||March-October||All year||40 x 30 cm||7-9 days|
|CELERY||March, June||October-February||40 x 30 cm||15-20 days|
|EGGPLANT||February March||July-October||50 x 50 cm||7-10 days|
|BORAGE||Spring fall||140 days||40 x 20 cm|
|BONIATO||February March||October November||80 x 30 cm|
|EARLY BROCCOLI||May July||150 days||70 x 40 cm|
|LATE BROCCOLI||August||150 days||70 x 40 cm|
|PUMPKIN||March April||120 days||120 x 60 cm||5-10 days|
|ZUCCHINI||March April||90 days||100 x 60 cm||5-10 days|
|CANONS||July September||90-150 days||Filas 20 cm|
|CARDO||March may||October December||90 x 90 cm|
|EARLY ONION||August October||May July||20 x 10 cm||8-10 days|
|LATE ONION||December-March||September October||20 x 10 cm||8-10 days|
|AUTUMN SPROUTS||April June||150 days||60 x 40 cm||5-6 days|
|WINTER SPROUTS||June August||150 days||60 x 40 cm||5-6 days|
|SPRING SPRINGS||September November||150 days||60 x 40 cm||5-6 days|
|EARLY CAULIFLOWERS||May July||150 days||60 x 40 cm||5-6 days|
|LATE CAULIFLOWERS||July September||180 days||60 x 40 cm||5-6 days|
|SUMMER STUFF||March, June||90 days||40 x 30 cm|
|WINTER ESCAROLA||August October||90 days||40 x 30 cm|
|SPINACH||August February||90 days||20 x 12 cm||5-7 days|
|GREEN PEAS||October-February||120 days||50 x 40 cm||5-10 days|
|BROAD BEANS||September November||120 days||50 x 30 cm|
|JEWISH||April June||90-100 days||60 x 50 cm||5-10 days|
|WINTER LETTUCE||August October||90-120 days||30 x 20 cm||7-8 days|
|SPRING LETTUCE||February may||90 days||30 x 20 cm||7-8 days|
|CORN||April June||August September||70 x 30 cm|
|MELON||April May||120 days||100 x 50 cm||3-7 days|
|NABO DE MESA||March-October||60 days||15 x 15 cm||3-6 days|
|POTATO||February may||June September||70 x 30 cm|
|PARSLEY||All year||90 days||10 x 5 cm||20-30 days|
|PEPPER||February April||150 days||50 x 40 cm||3-5 days|
|LEEKS||February July||120-150 days||30 x 10 cm||10-12 days|
|RABANITOS||All year||40 days||10 x 5 cm||4-6 days|
|BEET||March, June||90 days||30 x 20 cm|
|WATERMELON||April May||120 days||100 x 50 cm||6-8 days|
|TOMATO||February may||150 days||50 x 30 cm||5-8 days|
|CARROT||March-October||120 days||20 x 5 cm||12-15 days|