In this section we are going to learn about the techniques and methods for grafting rose bushes. We will know the different types of grafts that exist, the time of realization, the grafting operations and some tricks that you cannot miss. Grafting is a basic process in the garden, so the more information you have, the better! Let’s start by mentioning a question that is very common when grafting:
WHEN TO GRAFT ROSE BUSHES?
There is a range of months in which the graft operation is favorable. In spring the best results are obtained. Gusset- type grafts are usually done in summer (last days of July, whole August and the first of September) , because we need the rose bush to have vegetative activity and there is circulation of sap. We can also do it entering autumn but being careful with frost.
A trick when grafting the rose bush, whatever time it is within the mentioned range, is to water a few days before performing the operation.
The buds to be grafted are provided by the flower stalks, the shoots of the year. Flower stalks 5-10 days after flower wilting are optimal for the process. When choosing the buds , we will choose the ones in the center, and in case you have problems in terms of scarcity, we will choose the ones furthest from the flower.
To preserve the shoots, it is necessary to cut the leaves in the middle of the petiole and store them in a humid place , being able to help us with a wet rag or cloth.
THE 4 OPERATIONS TO GRAFT ROSE BUSHES
- Pattern preparation
- Preparation of the yolk
- Graft placement
- Tying the graft
The plant should not be pruned or cut any of its branches after grafting because in this way we would provoke a sprouting stimulus in grafted buds before the arrival of winter.
We are going to simulate these four points through images, so that the way to do it is much clearer:
POINT 1: PREPARING THE PATTERN
Fig 1: A T-shaped incision is made (image of the central stem) and the lateral lips are lifted (right stem).
POINT 2: PREPARING THE BUD FOR GRAFTING
Fig 2: The bud is prepared for grafting. First the bud is separated, the piece of wood that remains is removed and it would be ready to graft.
POINT 3 AND 4: PLACEMENT AND TYING OF THE YOLK
Fig 3: the yolk is placed and tied.
An incision is made over the T-shaped pattern (Figure 1), and the two lateral lips are lifted. Care must be taken when making the cut, whose depth must be just enough to separate the bark, being the origin of many failures in the grafting of the rose bush to make the cut with greater depth.
The bud is cut by separating it from the branch and with a knife the portion of wood is removed from it (figure 2), or the wood can be extracted once the bud has been cut.
The placement of the gusset is done as follows. While holding the gusset firmly with the thumb, it is tied, usually with raffia, starting from the top down and taking care not to cover the eye.
At 2 weeks (15 days) the graft is checked, and the process will be repeated if one has not grafted well. Starting in February of the following year, the rootstocks are cut above the graft.
The razor has to be very sharp. In this way we make sure that the cuts will be clean and will damage the rosebush as little as possible.
Choose a calm and peaceful day, without wind or heat and good conditions.
If you need more information about the graft you can consult the published books .