A few entries ago we talked about sowing conditions, depth, peeling and some considerations to take into account to properly cultivate some of the aromatic plants. Today we are going to talk a little more about this topic, but in the case of vegetables, which after all will be the “alma mater” of our garden.
In the already published entry on sowing aromatic plants , a difference was made between direct sowing and sowing in a nursery, whether under cover or not. If you are late, you can pick it up again to see the differences. Knowing what each type of sowing consists of, we can fully enter into the subject of the composition of the substrate for this purpose.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SUBSTRATE FOR PLANTING VEGETABLES
It is clear to all of us the importance of sowing to ensure optimal sprouting of our seeds, but do we know what a good substrate should be made of? To begin with, we will never be able to use the land from our garden. It is very easy to compact, complicates germination and the first stages of growth of our plants. The substrate requires very specific conditions to be a good substrate, including:
- Porosity to allow gas exchange, essential for good root development.
- Required moisture retention.
And how do I get a good planting substrate? Very simple. The best planting substrate is not the typical commercial one. It can have added chemicals and take advantage of sewage sludge with what it entails (undesirable elements in its composition, heavy metals …).
A suitable composition would be made up of coconut fiber (50%), highly decomposed compost or vermicompost (35-40%) and vermiculite (10-15%). This is not a “recipe” to be adhered to. It is a recommendation.
Coconut fiber Perlite
We can also use perlite instead of vermiculite, leaf compost instead of worm castings, and a host of other options. Perlite has the advantage of complying very well with the two conditions described above for a good planting substrate. It retains moisture and being porous allows good aeration. It also facilitates the development of bacteria, mycorrhizae and in general, the correct biotic development at the root level .
Once we have our substrate we will go to sowing. The following table shows the basic data for planting vegetables.
PLANTING DEPTH. IT IS IMPORTANT?
Imporant no. It is vital. Too deep can cause the plant to fail to germinate or not have enough force to break through the soil above it. On the contrary, a too shallow planting can cause poor plant development, as well as drying out of its roots and shoots due to excessive dehydration of the layer of soil closest to the surface. In case you do not have the sowing information of what you are going to plant, we attach a table with the main sowing depths. If you still lack a plant, you can always apply a simple rule: The depth will be about 3 times the size of the seed to be sown.
GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR PLANTING VEGETABLES
|Vegetables||Planting type||Germination (ºC)||Sowing depth (mm)||Germination (days)|
|Celery and celeriac||cover / seedbed||12||5||20|
|Zucchini||indoor / seedbed / direct||14||20||6-8|
|Pumpkin||seedbed / direct||15||20||6-8|
|White and colored onion||seedbed / direct||10||5||15|
|Brussels sprouts, Milan and collard greens||seedbed / direct||15||10||5|
|Cauliflower||indoor / seedbed / direct||15||10||6-8|
|Endive, curly endive and Witloof||seedbed / direct||15||10||4-6|
|Lettuce||indoor / seedbed / direct||10||5||6-8|
|Melon||indoor / seedbed / direct||20||20||6-8|
|Gherkin||indoor / seedbed / direct||18||15||6|
|Cucumber||indoor / seedbed / direct||18||15||6|
|Pepper||seedbed / direct||20||10||8-10|
|Leek||indoor / seedbed / direct||10||5||15-20|
|Cabbage and red cabbage||seedbed / direct||15||10||5-8|
|Watermelon||seedbed / direct||20||20||6-8|
|Tetragonia||covered / direct||15||20||8-10|
|Tomato||cover / seedbed||18||5||8-10|