Today, in Gardenprue, we are going to list and give a few characteristics of the avocado varieties most cultivated in Spain, so that if you decide to plant an avocado , you can select the best variety according to your climate, availability of irrigation, soil quality, etc. , or simply the one you like the most.
ORIGIN OF THE DIFFERENT VARIETIES
The first classification that is made is by the behavior of the flowers. The flowers open in two well differentiated periods, making the female and male organs function alternately depending on the period. That is why we differentiate between type A and type B.
In both cases, the female organ becomes functional in the first opening.
Although there is controversy regarding the classification of avocado races or varieties, the classification into 3 types is more or less generalized:
- Mexican breed ( Persea americana var. Drymifolia )
- Antillean breed (Persea americana var. Americana )
- Guatemalan breed ( Persea americana var. Guatemalensis )
Each of these varieties have a series of well-defined agronomic characteristics that we list in the following table:
|MEXICAN RACE||ANTILLAN RACE||GUATEMALAN RACE|
|Flowering||January to March||February to March||From january to april|
|Cold resistance||High (up to -7ºC)||Low (up to -1ºC)||Intermediate|
|Resistance to salinity||Little||A lot||Intermediate|
|Chlorosis resistance||Little||A lot||Little|
|Fruit size||Small (50-300 g)||Large (400-1500g)||Medium (200-500gr)|
|Skin characteristics||Very fine and smooth||Something thick, smooth and shiny||Thick, woody and rough|
|Pulp and seed characteristics||Large seed and little pulp||Abundant pulp||Abundant pulp, small seed|
|Peduncle shape||Elongated and cylindrical of uniform diameter||Cylindrical and flared||Frustoconical shape|
|Maturation||End of summer-autumn||Summer and early fall||End of winter and spring|
|Fruit quality||Good||Good||The best|
Source: Guide to cultivated fruits (Ed. Mundiprensa)
With this classification, depending mainly on the climatic and soil characteristics, we can define the variety that suits us best.
The most limiting thing will be tolerance to cold , followed by tolerance to salinity and chlorosis.
AVOCADO VARIETIES MOST CULTIVATED IN SPAIN
This is one of the queen avocado varieties in our country and practically the most widespread in the world. It is usually the one we usually buy. It has rough, dark green skin that turns purplish almost black as it reaches maturity (between spring and summer).
It is of the Guatemalan race of the flowering type group A. Its pulp is of very good quality and not very fibrous, with light hints of nutty in the flavor. Being of the Guatemalan race, his tolerance to cold is not very strong.
The reason why this variety has become the most consumed and cultivated is its long harvesting period, its quality and flavor, the use of pulp and a great resistance on the tree and after harvest.
In this respect it has few competitors.
This is a Mexican-Guatemalan hybrid, floral type B. It is more resistant to cold. Its pulp is of poorer quality than Has, but it may be interesting for its precookedness since it ripens in early winter.
Another Mexican-Guatemalan hybrid but in this case of floral group B. Its fruits are large and the tree develops great vertical vigor.
The quality of the pulp is not very good either. Maybe something better than Zutano but never better than Hass. Oval fruit with smooth, fine and green skin. This variety is one of the most suitable for cold areas with frequent winds. Its maturation is also early.
He is also Mexican-Guatemalan from group B. He is a good Hass pollinator since he gives good productions to the latter. It is also one of the most cultivated along with the Hass but this is a little more delicate in some aspects. It certainly doesn’t live up to the name.
It is more sensitive to cold and also suffers from excessive heat during flowering and fruit setting. Its maturation occurs at the end of Winter. Less productive than Hass but also very good fruit quality.
This is purely Guatemalan and from group A. Its problem: excessive vertical growth and very heavy fruits. Late variety whose maturation occurs during the summer.
The shape of its fruit is one of the most rounded. If you see a very very round avocado it is very possible that it is Reed. Its pulp is of good quality with a touch of nut just like Hass.
It is a Guatemalan-Mexican hybrid of floral group A. The quality of the pulp is good and its maturation is between spring and summer, like the Hass variety.
Guatemalan-Mexican floral group A. Very similar to Hass, somewhat larger and wider in size. It has some advantage over conventional Hass such as greater resistance to wind and high temperatures.
Due to this, its ripening is purely in summer.