Although the previous title may have philosophical nuances with the “complex flower” we do not get out of reality, and that is that the orchid is a family of plants that are characterized by their flowers, far from all simplicity and roundness to which we they are accustomed to the rest of the flowers.
Today, at Gardenprue, we teach you how to grow the orchid in your garden or orchard. Worth!
Everyone knows or has heard of orchids. Recognizing them in the garden is another story, much less knowing about their care. For the latter, there is no need to worry because we will try to explain in the simplest way possible the care of orchids .
When we talk about the orchid ( Orchidaceae ) we are referring to the more than 25,000 species that make up this family.
The ornamental species we want to refer to have similar cares (because they have the same genetic load), but within this genus of species, there is a great diversity of plants spread throughout the world (many non-ornamental).
These can range from species of a few centimeters in height to aggregations of plants of this family of several hundred kilograms, such as the genus Grammatophyllum within the epiphytic orchids.
CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORCHID
Although they are found throughout the world as we have commented before (given the great diversity of species), their ideal place is the tropics. But as we say, they have had so much adaptation that they can be found in any country without problems.
You have to know, depending on the species in question, its adaptation to cold, since in terms of heat there is no problem. It should also be borne in mind that it prefers environments where there is a difference in temperatures between day and night, a fact that you will have to take into account when growing the orchid indoors.
As for light, it is a plant that is used to light environments, and the scarcity of this harms it in the production of flowers, delaying it or avoiding production.
But this light has a peculiarity, and that is that it is not recommended that it be direct, that is, that the solar rays do not hit the plant directly, since it can burn the flowers.
However, there are some species of orchids that do accept direct light.
HOW THE SOIL OR SUBSTRATE SHOULD BE WHERE IT IS GROWN
Orchids need a moist, soft soil rich in organic matter. A solution within the garden or orchard is to make a mulch as we teach you to do it . If we have them in a pot, we must control the drainage and it must be perfect, so we must pay special attention to the hole in the pot.
The soil must be aerated and loose.
Either because of the tropical environment in which they developed in their beginnings, orchids are plants that need a humid environment .
A good example to increase the humidity of the environment is to water with a sprayer (one of those that we can have in the kitchen to use on the iron).
Regarding irrigation, you must avoid overwatering (remember that environmental humidity is not directly linked to irrigation) as it can cause the appearance of root rot or fungi.
In this regard, the orchid tolerates lack of water better than excess , and you will have to regulate the waterings depending on the environment in which it is found.
For example, inside a house , where it is difficult to alter the humidity when the plant is in a pot, if the temperatures are high (be careful with the heating) or it has good light, the frequency of waterings will be higher than, for example, if We have them in the garden, in partial shade, with sprinkler irrigation and grouped with other plants.
THE ORCHID SUBSCRIBER
The fertilization or fertilization must be controlled with special care in the case of the orchid. We should not spend in quantities and it is better to regulate it, little by little, throughout the year. We can use controlled amounts of manure or compost , or if we want to buy some mineral, we can make it an NPK without many differences between the proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
We can see that something is wrong in the fertilizer when the growth of the plant is very reduced, or we observe a progressive yellowing of its leaves.
The multiplication of the orchid can be done in various ways. The original is through seeds , but today it has become so specialized that it is left only to laboratories to produce new species of orchids.
Every year they produce many tiny seeds but they are very difficult to germinate and if it does, the development and growth of the plant is very slow.
The vegetative propagation is used and is highly dividing stem technique. It also depends on the species we have, it can be done by separating suckers, which grow in the pseudobulb.
TIPS TO MAKE ORCHIDS RE-BLOOM AT HOME
Once the flowering ends, it seems that it remains sad, lifeless and we cannot make it bloom again. For this reason they are usually abandoned. How can we get them to bloom again?
It will not be the first time that they give us an orchid for a birthday, celebration or for a detail without any other reason. One of the things that orchids have is that they are not so easy to grow.
Orchids are the easiest plants to care for indoors
They need very specific conditions to flourish again and you have to be somewhat aware. In addition, the variety of orchids is so immense that it is not easy to generalize in the growing conditions.
We are going to identify some of the cultivation and care errors to correct them and get our orchid to bloom again.
The factors that we are going to discuss below can be the cause of non-flowering as long as the plant is healthy. If you see signs of wilting, rotting, pest attacks, or disease , you need to address those issues first.
[alert style = »yellow»] If the plant is sick, no matter how much we strictly adhere to the cultivation conditions, we will not be able to make it bloom. If not, let’s see what might be happening. [/ Alert]
4 GENERAL MISTAKES WE MAKE WHEN GROWING THE ORCHID
- Lack of light
- Wrong temperatures
- Lack of subscriber
- Inadequate watering
1. THE INCIDENCE OF LIGHT IS A KEY FACTOR
The vast majority of commercial orchids need large inputs of light to develop their life cycle.
To make them flourish, light is a prime factor. If you have an orchid in a dimly lit place, it is very likely that flowering is delayed or scarce and will not even flower.
Although the amount of light to be supplied is high, remember that nothing or very little should be direct light. It is important to control that the plant will suffer burns.
2. TEMPERATURE CONTROL. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT IS IMPORTANT
Depending on whether they are warm, temperate or cold greenhouse orchids, we will have to control different thermal ranges. The cold ones are difficult to grow . They are very demanding in the conditions and during the summer months the matter is complicated by having to provide them with freshness and humidity.
It is not an easy task in our latitudes, except for specific areas of the country. The vast majority are usually temperate or warm greenhouse. What we do have to take into account are the thermal variations between day and night .
In a house it is not easy to control this unless we have a covered balcony or gallery, where the thermal differences can be important.
- From a warm greenhouse : in winter we must not drop below 17-18 ºC and in summer we must not go above 30 ºC
- Temperate greenhouse: the differences between day and night must be between 3 and 5 ºC. During the winter, the established thermal ranges are between 10 and 15ºC with the thermal differences already mentioned between day and night. In summer they can withstand up to 25ºC approximately.
- Cold greenhouse: even if they are cold, they must be protected from frost and the minimum must not drop below 4-6 ºC. The difficult thing in this group is to maintain a thermal difference between day and night of 10-15 ºC. The thermal jump is considerable.
In general, and depending on how the summer months are in your climate zone, orchids tend to appreciate going outside in summer , (controlling excess heat).
The reason is that the thermal differences between day and night are relatively easy to achieve and that is good for the plant, in addition to achieving better aeration.
3. THE FERTILIZER OF THE ORCHID IS SOMETHING THAT WE CANNOT IGNORE
Have you ever noticed the substrate of orchids? It is a very light substrate, with an exemplary drainage, but in return the nutrient content tends to become scarce over time. Subscribing should be done at low doses and regularly.
Fertilizer fillings are not recommended.
Remember that in order to favor flower production, the nitrogen content must decrease and the concentrations of potassium or phosphorus must increase. When we want to stimulate leaf production, the nitrogen concentration must increase.
[alert style = »yellow»] On the market there are dozens of formulations and many of them specific for orchids so you have to choose. [/ alert]
4. IRRIGATION AND TYPE OF WATER
A maxim that we must take into account is the type and temperature of the irrigation water. It must be very soft water (not calcareous) and at room temperature in most species. Rainwater is undoubtedly the best option if you can collect it.
If not, tap water can be used if it is soft . Then there is the option of mineral water that, although more expensive, is another option for the plant, not so much for our pocket although there are times when we do not have quality water.
In eastern Spain, rains are scarce and mains water tends to have a high calcium content.
We must water in the morning , always in the morning, to allow the orchid to assimilate it throughout the day, which is when they are “active.” There are two ways of watering:
- By immersion, covering 2/3 of the pot for approximately half a minute. This also helps wash the substrate of possible over-compost or compost accumulations that are not good. Remember that the fertilizer should be applied at low doses. If it accumulates too much, the roots can necrotize.
- With watering can (spout, not artichoke) and a large capacity plate under the pot. Allow the substrate to saturate until the water fills the dish. After 5 or 10 minutes we will reuse the water in this dish. Let it drain for a while and put the orchid back in its original plate.
Finally, we leave you a video where you can see how to perform an orchid transplant and root sanitation.