For those advocates of organic farming, it is good to know how to recognize early some pests and diseases that make an appearance with the arrival of good temperatures. Be careful because prevention will reduce the severity of the problem. Here we leave you a list to know how to act.
Ecological agriculture prevents the use of synthetic chemicals or, of course, the use of genetically modified organisms. This means that there are products that are obtained from nature and are very effective against pests and diseases, such as pyrethrins . We will dedicate an article to this product as it is becoming increasingly important.
HOW ARE PESTS AND DISEASES MANAGED IN ORGANIC FARMING?
Organic farming differs from modern farming in its use of cultivation for prevention. These tasks focus on tasks such as good soil management, correct pruning of trees and grasses, plant covers, the introduction of natural enemies in your orchard or garden, etc.
Whatever the treatment, the origin of the problem is due, in most cases, to poor execution by the farmer. Although well, not everything is “mea culpa”, there are other factors that we cannot control, such as the weather, or the method of work that our neighbor carries out with his crops.
Here we see a list of possible origins
- We have passed with the nitrogen fertilizer.
- Our crops are weak for whatever reason.
- We have eliminated natural enemies through the excessive use of broad-spectrum insecticides.
- Favorable climate for the appearance of insects or excess humidity and origin of fungi.
- We are not doing a convenient pruning.
IDENTIFICATION OF PESTS AND DISEASES
Very gregarious pest that settles on crops, biting the green parts of the plant. This causes a yellowish mottling on each bite. With advanced pest, a spider web forms around the entire crop.
The mealybug is established on leaves and shoots of crops. They suck the sap from the green parts, causing chlorotic spots and deformations.
Very voracious pest located on the roots of most stone fruit trees. He has his own article in Gardenprue. They weaken and produce loss of production in the tree, defoliation of the plant and future death if it is not treated in time.
They usually attack trees and young plants. The small larvae penetrate inside the leaves where they create whitish galleries. The sheet wrinkles, turns yellow, and ends up drying out.
The sprouts have a burnt appearance.
This typical cruciferous and citrus pest damage the leaves by chopping and extracting their vegetable juice. Due to this damage, the leaves become discolored (yellowish tones). If the bites are numerous, the blade curls and closes. A molasses is generated that attracts ants and fungi such as Negrilla.
It produces a few bites on the fruit that speck it with dark tones. The fruit depreciates and its organoleptic characteristics are lost. It lays eggs inside the fruit and then feeds on it.
Both the young shoots and the leaves are attacked by the green mosquito. The shoots are deformed and sometimes necrotic.
San Jose louse
A very numerous pest that settles on almost all parts of the crop. Trunk, branches, fruits, etc. The plant weakens and loses vigor.
Small leaf spots appear on the plant. They are usually circular with a reddish or brown appearance. Over time, these spots become necrotic and detach, leaving the hole, as if they were “shot.”
New shoots appear with wrinkled leaves. These, over time, turn reddish in color and have bumps or dents.
The leaves appear screened, and the flowers “burned.” The fruits quickly overripe and rot. However, they do not fall to the ground, but instead turn a brownish-brown color as if they were mummified on the tree.
Chlorotic spots appear on leaves that are covered with the whitish mycelium of the fungus. Over time, the leaves curl, necrotize, and fall off. The fruit is also affected.
On the leaf, in the bundle, chlorotic spots appear. If we look at the underside, these spots will have a brown, reddish appearance.
Tumors appear on the neck of the plant. They are dark in color, hard to the touch and rough. They can also appear on branches.
PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL MEASURES
Sulfur and natural pyrethrins. Plant extracts (nettle slurry, horsetail), mineral oils.
Use of auxiliary fauna such as predatory mites, orius, black ladybug, flower bug, etc.
Summer oil once the crop has set the fruit. Mineral oils. Parasitic wasps. Ladybugs Grurupo coccinélidos. Lycene Lepidoptera, etc.
Use of biological control (in the article on the big-headed worm you have all the information), elimination of severely affected trees, placing a plastic sheet around the trunk, trapping and manual capture.
Neem oil and white have proven their effectiveness against leaf miner. There are also some insects that manage to control the advance of this pest
The potassium soap has been shown to be an effective tool against whitefly. Neem oil or other mineral oils can also be applied.
Biological control can also be done with certain parasitoids. One of the most famous is Encarsia formosa.
There are auxiliary fauna that allows reducing the populations of fruit flies. Trapping has also been shown to be effective. Just placing a bottle of vinegar and sugar hanging from a tree considerably reduces the density of flies.
The green mosquito has quite a few natural enemies. Bed bugs, orius and wasps that parasitize individuals. Summer oil can also be used.
San Jose louse
To prevent and reduce the spread, the pruned branches that are affected must be eliminated. Paraffin or winter oil can be used. In plant extracts, absinthe can be a good weapon.
Winter oil can be helpful in reducing damage. Copper can also be used when leaf density has been reduced by 50%.
Damaged shoots must be removed, as well as affected fruits. Copper can also be used with 50% leaf drop.
The affected parts of the tree must be removed. Apply copper when leaf density is reduced.
The application of sulfur on the crop is an effective method to reduce the spread of powdery mildew. Convenient pruning aerates the crop and reduces infection.
Horsetail as a plant extract, well macerated, helps combat and reduce the spread of rust.
Cultivation tasks prevent the spread of tumors to other parts of the plant or other crops. Cleaning of work tools (saws, axes, scissors, etc.) is vital to prevent the disease from spreading.