Guide and schedule of vineyard treatments

The combination of good treatments at the right time is the key to having a vineyard in perfect health and nutrition. This guide to vineyard treatments  can help you to know first-hand what are the applications that are made and the exact moment to do them. 

Although nutritionally important, it is even more important to identify the times when pests and diseases can appear. As in all crops, prevention must prevail over cure. This will save us a lot of money.

We begin by looking at the tasks to be carried out and the recommended applications in vine cultivation every month .

JANUARY, COLD MONTH AND PREPARATION OF THE VINEYARD FOR THE FUTURE AWAKENING

Although the pruning of the vineyard can be done before, depending on the area where we are, it may be appropriate to do a structural pruning and perform treatments to seal the wounds and prevent the future entry of diseases.

Here we leave you a very interesting video where it is clearly explained how to prune the vine

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The cuts of large stems, which leave a large wound on the crop, can be sealed with mastic or painted with a copper solution (any of the different forms of concentrated copper that we find in the market can be useful).

It is important, as the video says, that it be a cold day without much humidity. For example, a sunny day. That will help reduce potential diseases like tinder.

FEBRUARY, NUTRITION PLANNING MONTH

Within the vineyard treatments, this month stands out for starting the application of background fertilizer in many plots. Especially designed for those vineyards that do not have drip irrigation and are cultivated in dry land.

For this, complex fertilizers are usually sought (each ball houses all the nutrients) or blending (each ball has one or more nutrients but not all).

You will find a world of fertilizer solutions, enriched with different NPK formulas, sulfur, micronutrients, etc.

These are our recommendations, depending on the estimated production and the type of soil you have.

[LABEL STYLE = »BLUE»] LOW / MEDIUM RAINFALL AREAS [/ LABEL]

From 350-450 kg / ha of the following formulas:

  • Complejo 6-10-12 (Mg-S) + Fe
  • Complex 8-24-8 + Fe
  • Complex 8-15-15 + Fe
  • Complex 4-6-12 + Fe
  • [LABEL STYLE = »BLUE»] AREAS WITH HIGH RAINFALL [/ LABEL]

We have a soil that is more susceptible to nutrient washing and therefore we must apply a greater amount of fertilizer.

From 450-550 kg / ha:

  • Complejo 6-10-12 (Mg-S) + Fe
  • Complex 8-24-8 + Fe
  • Complex 8-15-15 + Fe
  • Complex 4-6-12 + Fe

Choosing one or the other will depend mainly on the concentration of potassium that we have in the soil. In general, if we have contributed organic matter (and this usually has a good concentration of potassium) recently, we will use complexes with less than 15% potassium.

On the contrary, if we are low in potassium, we will look for formulas high in potassium.

Nitrogen is usually in low concentration, 6 to 8%, and better if it has nitrification inhibitors . In this way, we will have a controlled release of nitrogen so that it can be available in the phases of greatest need.

At this time we will also have the option of applying herbicides to keep possible herbs that form near the trunk at bay.

MARCH, TIME TO START TREATMENTS IN THE VINEYARD

In many areas, March is a time when the days lengthen and the temperatures begin to rise. New sprouts begin and we enter the vegetative start season. 

In the later vines, you will still find yourself in a winter lethargy phase and you will have to wait a little longer.

For the first sprouts, the first treatments against powdery mildew can be carried out by means of dusted sulfur applications.

List of active ingredients treatments in vineyard against powdery mildew

Foliar treatments against mildew should also be started, especially in sensitive areas.

List of active ingredients treatments in vineyard against mildew

APRIL, TIME FOR PREVENTIVE TREATMENTS AGAINST PESTS AND DISEASES

April is the month of the vine where you have to be active with foliar treatments. A significant number of pests begin to appear and we must act preventively, as we always recommend.

We will continue the treatments against powdery mildew and against mildew and we will begin to treat against pests such as castanets, gray worms, vine weevils, etc.

Likewise, we will continue with the applications of powdered sulfur, as it works really well as a preventive of powdery mildew and we will keep the activity of mites that may appear in the vineyard at bay.

MAY, MONTH OF FOLIAR TREATMENTS IN VINEYARD

This month, where there is great vegetative activity and we have a vineyard in full production of green leaves and stems, micronutrient deficiencies tend to appear.

The most common is usually iron chlorosis or iron deficiency, very common and visible because we will see yellow leaves with green nerves.

To correct this deficiency, we can apply iron chelates in fertigation (EDDHA in case of very alkaline soils or EDTA if we have acid soils) or iron complexes in foliar application.

Be careful with the regrowth of the trunks, which deplete the vine’s energy and harm the development of future fruits.

Before the future curdling, we can apply some stimulant based on seaweed, amino acids, hormone promoters (auxins and cytokinins, etc.), microelements (boron and molybdenum), etc. In short, everything that gives us an energetic stimulus to motivate the future fruitful.

JUNE, WE WILL SEE THE FIRST BERRIES IN FORMATION

In this month, we will see berry formation in many varieties. We will continue with the treatments against powdery mildew and mildew that we cannot abandon, but choosing different active ingredients to prevent them from overcoming resistance.

At this time we will apply treatments in the vineyard based on fast-acting insecticides against moths and aphids.

We will control the weeds to prevent them from stealing nutrients from the vineyard.

JULY, INCREASE IN SIZE AND CARE OF THE BUNCH

In July, with the prevailing heat, it is a time when we must protect the bunches from pests and diseases. It is a sensitive time where we cannot neglect ourselves.

We will continue to apply stimulants such as amino acids and NPK with microelements. The application of these products help to overcome heat stroke, drought stress and, in general, bad conditions.

We can apply copper, preventive against wood diseases and apply fungicides against gray rot ( Botrytis cinerea ).

Authorized treatments against gray rot ( Botrytis cinerea )

AUGUST, THE SEASON OF VERAISON BEGINS IN MANY VINEYARDS

In general, at this time or a little earlier, the vines start veraisoning, a time of special care where the accumulation of sugars and tannins causes the berries to change color.

We will continue to treat against diseases (special attention against gray rot) and the recommended treatments against powdery mildew and mildew.

We can apply products against vine moth   if the populations exceed the maximum allowable.

In areas very sensitive to diseases, such as Galicia, copper applications are usually continued. These are usually carried out up to 21 days from the moment of collection.

SEPTEMBER, FULL HARVEST PHASE

In September, a little before or a little later, the harvest or harvest begins.

At this time, we still have to continue to fear gray rot, where we will carry out a last foliar pass if the conditions are conducive to the development of the disease. High relative humidity and rainfall (this month tends to host high rainfall peaks), make it mandatory not to neglect foliar treatments, since otherwise we can lose a large volume of production.

Be careful with the security deadlines, since we must respect them before making any collection.

OCTOBER

The late cycle varieties can still be harvested. In this case, the same conditions are met as in the month of September, not neglecting the foliar treatments that make the development of gray rot or Botrytis prevail.

LATE CYCLE VINE VARIETIES

  • Peter Jimenez
  • Garnacha Tinta
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Syrah
  • Merlot
  • Verdejo

And a long etcetera.

NOVEMBER, LAST HARVESTS AND TREATMENTS IN THE VINEYARD

We can still see the collection of late varieties such as Monastrell, Airén, Petit Verdot, Parellada , etc. Within the vineyard treatments we can still carry out powdered sulfur treatments to reduce possible spores of mildew, although everything will depend on the humidity and the rains that have fallen.

After harvesting, we can collect organic matter to reestablish nutritional balances in the soil or add potassium to restore levels in the plant.

DECEMBER, A MONTH OF REST

December is a month of rest, where we will no longer have to carry out treatments in the vineyard focused on diseases, nutritional or otherwise.

The vines will be leafless and intact pending pruning and restart of the cycle, which will begin in January.

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