You can know it as neem oil or also as neem oil. Both accepted. It doesn’t matter what name you choose as long as you put this product naturally extracted from a tree to good use.
In this article, dedicated to this oilseed extract, we are going to tell you about its potential, doses and applications against different pests in the garden.
THE NEEM TREE OR NEEM AND NEEM EXTRACT
Neem oil comes from the extraction of the seeds of the neem tree. It has no more secret. It does not carry a very strong marketing with goji berries and its properties are almost fully known, based on the potential of some of its extracts, mentioned below.
The neem tree has a large size, being able to exceed 25 meters high. We can find it in subtropical countries like India or Burma. It is used to drought and grows very fast.
By mentioning its scientific name, it will surely lead us to think about what we are going to comment on next. Azadirachta indica, from which azadirachtin, a powerful insecticide, is extracted.
We can see it more and more in stores dedicated to the sale of organic products, as neem oil is included within the EC 889/2008 regulation on production and labeling of organic products.
COMPOSITION OF NEEM EXTRACT
The potential of neem oil is neither secret nor hidden. In fact, many of the extracts or principles it contains may also be in other raw materials. The key is the concentration of each one of them.
- Linoleic acid (Omega 6): 6-16%
- Oleic acid (Omega 9): 25-54%
- Palmitic acid: 16-33%
- Stearic acid: 9-24%
- Omega 3 and palmitoleic acid: variable and unknown concentrations.
It should be borne in mind that neem oil, extracted from the seeds as we have commented, has a yield of 25-45%. In other words, neem oil can be extracted from each seed in such quantities.
NEEM EXTRACT USES AND DOSAGES
If we read the product label, the product description says the following:
Product with insectistatic effect, it has an inhibitory effect on feeding, confusing, masking effect of pheromones, over-exciting effect.
Its use can be standardized to all types of crops and is authorized in organic farming. In the market we can see different concentrations, including 99%.
It can be used for vegetables, stone and seed fruit trees, vine, olive grove, legumes, ornamentals, banana trees, etc.
The product can be applied foliar , directly on the pest, at 100-200 ml / hl. That is, 1-2 L / 1,000 L. If for example we made a 15 L backpack, we would use 15-30 ml per backpack of neem oil.
But we can also use it directly on fertigation, at 2 L / ha every 2 or 3 weeks. Focused on insects that develop their life in the soil and attack the roots of plants.
USE A SURFACTANT WITH NEEM OIL
Important when using azadirachtin, as it is an oleaginous substance and, therefore, with high viscosity, add a surfactant or surfactant that improves the mixture when we make a foliar application.
On the contrary, we run the risk that the product does not cover the entire leaf surface of the plant and we manage to control some insects but not all.
In the market you have a wide variety of soaps and surfactants, but if you want to use one around the house, you can choose the home dishwasher. Of course, use a very small dose (1-2 ml / L) or even accompany it with vinegar (2 ml / L).
POTENTIAL OF AZADIRACHTIN (NEEM EXTRACT)
As for the crops on which neem oil can act, we break it down as follows:
- Horticulturals: mealybug, whitefly, white spider, aphids and caterpillars.
- Stone and seed fruit trees: pear psila , green mosquito, ceratitis, leaf miners, eriophids and caterpillars.
- Gardening in general: whitefly, aphids, mealybugs, etc.
Keep in mind that neem oil is a good tool, for continuous use (reapplication every 2 or 3 weeks and a lot of patience in controlling the pest) in organic farming .
The rest of the components present in neem oil, apart from azadirachtin, are plant compounds that also have positive effects on the plant, such as the generation of phytoalexins and plant defense systems, regulating the nutritional balance.